Spirit of Ma'at: "Free Energy & Alternative Energy - Part I" — Vol 2 February 2002

Taming the Fierce Energy of the Vacuum
by Tom Bearden, Ph.D.

Footnotes and references:

  1. Lee and Yang strongly predicted broken symmetry in 1956; see T. D. Lee, "Question of Parity Conservation in Weak Interactions," Physical Review, 104(1), Oct. 1, 1956, p. 254-259; — and C. N. Yang, "Remarks on Possible Noninvariance under Time Reversal and Charge Conjugation," Physical Review, 106(2), 1957, p. 340-345.
  2. Wu et al. experimentally proved broken symmetry in 1957; see C. S. Wu, E. Ambler, R. W. Hayward, D. D. Hoppes and R. P. Hudson, "Experimental Test of Parity Conservation in Beta Decay," Physical Review, Vol. 105, 1957, p. 1413.
  3. So revolutionary to physics was this discovery of broken symmetry, that the Nobel Prize was awarded to Lee and Yang in the very same year that Wu experimentally proved it. For Lee's Nobel acceptance speech, see T. D. Lee, "Weak Interactions and Nonconservation of Parity," Nobel Lecture, Dec. 11, 1957. In T. D. Lee, Selected Papers, Gerald Feinberg, Ed., Birkhauser, Boston, 1986, Vol. 1, p. 32-44.
  4. James Clerk Maxwell, "A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field," Royal Society Transactions, Vol. CLV, 1865, p 459.
  5. See Terence W. Barrett, "Tesla's Nonlinear Oscillator-Shuttle-Circuit (OSC) Theory," Annales de la Fondation Louis de Broglie, 16(1), 1991, p. 23-41. Tesla was able to shuttle the potential (and the energy) around in his circuits at will. Barrett, one of the pioneers of ultrawideband radar, extended Tesla's method and obtained two U.S. patents for use in signaling science: See T. W. Barrett, "Active Signalling Systems," U.S. Patent No. 5,486,833, issued Jan. 23, 1996; — "Oscillator-Shuttle-Circuit (OSC) Networks for Conditioning Energy in Higher-Order Symmetry Algebraic Topological Forms and RF Phase Conjugation," U.S. Patent No. 5,493,691, issued Feb. 20, 1996.
  6. As stated, when Maxwell died, he himself was engaged in converting his own quaternion-like theory into the much simpler vector theory. See Maxwell, James Clerk, A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1873, Second Edition 1881 (Maxwell was already dead), Third Edition, Volumes 1 and 2, 1891. Foreword to the second edition was by Niven, who finished the work as Maxwell had dramatically rewritten the first nine chapters, much new matter added and the former contents rearranged and simplified. Maxwell died before finishing the rest of the second edition. The rest of the second edition is therefore largely a reprint from the first edition. The third edition edited by J. J. Thomson was published in 1892, by Oxford University Press, and later was published unabridged by Dover Publications, New York, 1954. J. J. Thomson finished the publication of the third edition, and wrote a "Supplementary Volume" with his notes. A summary of Maxwell's modified equations are given in Vol. II, Chapter IX of the third edition. However, Maxwell had gone (in his second edition) to some pains to reduce the quaternion expressions himself, and therefore to not require the students to know the more difficult calculus of quaternions (so stated on p. 257).
  7. Actually the first "symmetrizing" truncation of Maxwell's equations was by Ludwig van Lorenz, shortly after Maxwell's 1865 definitive paper was published. See Ludvig Valentin Lorenz, "On the identity of the vibrations of light with electrical currents," Philosophical Magazine, Vol. 34, 1867, p. 287-301. In this paper L. V. Lorenz gave essentially what today is called the Lorentz symmetrical regauging. However, when H.A. Lorentz, then perhaps the greatest electrical scientist, regauged the Maxwell-Heaviside equations in the 1880s, the H. A. Lorentz regauging was adopted because of Lorentz's prestige.
  8. The symmetrized systems can and do receive the excess energy only in the form of a net force-free stress potential (simply examine the regauging equations and the regauging condition). With no net force available to dissipate the stress potential energy, no net work can be done by the excess stress energy received. That is precisely what the Lorentz condition means, in simpler terms. The closed current loop circuit automatically self-applies Lorentz regauging, by making the back-emf precisely equal to the forward emf, so that the collected energy becomes stress energy with no net force fields self-generated by the system itself. In that case, the operator must continue to input some form of net work and net force field, for which the system will respond by using it to produce the back emf. In that "using it," the system is able to power a load to that extent and that extent only. The known absence of Newton's third law from electrodynamic fields already assures us that back-emf equal to forward emf is not a law of nature in electrodynamics. Yet mainstream electrical engineering persists in assuming that it is.
  9. Disequilibrium systems produce net force fields along with receipt of the excess energy — something we have called "asymmetrical regauging." This violates the Lorentz condition, and the system can then utilize this net force to dissipate the net energy received, thus performing some "free work." This is no more mysterious than a windmill receiving energy and net force from the environment, and using that force to dissipate the energy and do free work. To imply that it is somehow a violation of natural law or a violation of energy conservation is simply ridiculous.
  10. To see how this is done, see J. D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics, Second Edition, Wiley, New York, 1975, p. 219-221; 811-812.
  11. Again, a system in equilibrium can and does receive excess energy from the environment, but it also immediately returns the energy. The "force in" and "force out" balance to a net zero, so input of additional energy just results in the production of excess system stress, but no free work in an external load.
  12. Any dipole (such as a permanent magnet) or charge pours out EM energy in all directions at the speed of light — and hence produces a continuous "free electromagnetic wind." If we leave it intact, the dipole or the charge will pour out such energy indefinitely. The dipoles and charges in the original matter of the universe have been doing it for some 15 billion years, and they are still doing it. So the process does not "run down." Every charge and dipole in the universe exhibits giant negentropy, producing all that EM energy and the EM fields and potentials in nature. Yet for more than a century we have designed and built only entropic systems. We have steadily despoiled the biosphere in the process.
  13. We stress this point most strongly. Such a system may freely receive excess energy from its environment, but it self-enforces equilibrium by applying some form of Newton's third law, to negate any net force fields resulting from the excess energy. Consequently, this system can change its stress energy, but not its usable net field energy to do external work. It can only change the equilibrium condition, with a change of stress potential as it changes the conditions of equilibrium.
  14. Superconductive sections in a system are often touted as COP = 1.0 systems, by implication. However, when the cryogenics overhead we must pay is counted, they are grossly underunity.
  15. David Halliday and Robert Resnick, Fundamentals of Physics, Third Edition Extended, Wiley, New York, 1988, Vol. 1, p. 518.
  16. E.g., see M.W. Evans, P.K. Anastasovski, T. E. Bearden et al., "Explanation of the Motionless Electromagnetic Generator with O(3) Electrodynamics," Foundations of Physics Letters, 14(1), Feb. 2001, p. 87-94; — "Explanation of the Motionless Electromagnetic Generator by Sachs's Theory of Electrodynamics," Foundations of Physics Letters, 14(4), 2001, p. 387-393.. The tired old "perpetual motion nonsense" charge was strongly raised in the vigorous refereeing of these two AIAS papers. To refute the charge raised against the latter paper, I prepared a vigorous rebuttal, "On Permissible COP>1.0 Maxwellian Systems: A Reply to the Board Member," and submitted it to the referees and editors. Based on the paper, the referees and editors overruled the objections and published the second paper because every charge and every dipole in the universe already clearly demonstrates a COP>1.0 Maxwellian system. We challenged the classical scientists to provide a solution to the source charge problem in their Lorentz-regauged theory, then showed the solution which can only appear in a higher symmetry electrodynamics — such as the O(3) EM or the Sachs EM used in the two papers. The old EM assumes an inert local vacuum and a locally flat spacetime, both assumptions being long since refuted in modern physics. And every charge and dipole demonstrates the falsity of those two assumptions, as is easily demonstrated on the lab bench.
  17. Except the classical electrodynamicists who have not resolved their own source charge problem, no one advocates that an EM system can do more work in a load than the total amount of usable energy that is input to it! Instead, one advocates that it can do more work than the operator inputs; the remaining energy is freely input from the active external environment due to the disequilibrium (the broken symmetry) condition. The broken symmetry also specifically implies violation of the Lorentz symmetry condition, a priori.
  18. The reason is extraordinarily simple, once one makes clear definitions of terms. Work rigorously is a change the form of energy. A priori, an inert system cannot "convert the form of energy" it has not received and collected. But it can receive additional energy from the environment and convert more than the operator himself inputs, in which case the environment freely inputs the remainder of the input energy being converted in form!
  19. Craig F. Bohren, "How can a particle absorb more than the light incident on it?" American Journal of Physics, 51(4), Apr. 1983, p. 323-327. Under nonlinear conditions, a particle can absorb more energy than is in the light incident on it. Metallic particles at ultraviolet frequencies are one class of such particles and insulating particles at infrared frequencies are another. See also H. Paul and R. Fischer, {Comment on "How can a particle absorb more than the light incident on it?'}," Am. J. Phys., 51(4), Apr. 1983, p. 327. The Bohren experiment is repeatable and produces COP = 18.
  20. As an example, quoting Jed Z. Buchwald, From Maxwell to Microphysics, University of Chicago Press, Chicago and London, 1985, p. 44: "[Poynting's result] implies that a charged capacitor in a constant magnetic field which is not parallel to the electric field is the seat of energy flows even though all macroscopic phenomena are static."
  21. The key is in that word "detectable" — or as the physicist would say, "observable." The experiment rigorously demonstrates that, if the law of energy conservation is valid, then the charge and the dipole must be continuously receiving energy (from its external environment) in nonobservable (virtual) form and integrating it into observable form. And so it is, as has been known in particle physics for 45 years. In the case of the dipole, it is due to the known broken symmetry of the opposite charges comprising the dipole. In the case of the charge, when one accounts the clustering virtual charges (from quantum electrodynamics), then the charge is actually a set of composite dipoles, each exhibiting the required broken symmetry. Hence, charges and dipoles freely absorb (receive) virtual photon energy from the seething vacuum (particle physics proves this), integrating the absorbed "disintegrated" energy into observable form, and re-emitting real, observable EM energy in all directions, continuously. That this has not yet appeared in the electrical engineering model is strictly the fault of the leaders of the scientific community who have not enforced its inclusion. Consequently, the electrical engineers do not even understand what powers an EM circuit or system. It is energy from the vacuum, extracted and integrated by the source charge and the source dipole.
  22. E.g., see D. K. Sen, Fields and/or Particles, Academic Press, London and New York, 1968, p. viii.
  23. T. E. Bearden, "Giant Negentropy from the Common Dipole," Proceedings of Congress 2000, St. Petersburg, Russia, Vol. 1, July 2000 , p. 86-98. Also published in Journal of New Energy, 5(1), Summer 2000, p. 11-23. Also carried on DoE restricted website and cheniere.org.
  24. F. Mandl and G. Shaw, Quantum Field Theory, Wiley, 1984, Chapter 5.
  25. With the broken symmetry of unlike charges and with the Nobel Prize awarded to Lee and Yang in 1957.
  26. With the fact that virtual charges of opposite charges cluster around an "isolated" observable charge. One differential piece of the observable charge and one clustering virtual charge of opposite sign comprise a composite dipole. The "isolated source charge" may thus be treated as a set of composite dipoles. The broken symmetry of opposite charges solves the problem for any dipole, and thus for the "isolated" charge as a set of composite dipoles.
  27. E. T. Whittaker, "On the Partial Differential Equations of Mathematical Physics," Mathematische Annalen, Vol. 57, 1903, p. 333-355.
  28. By use of the conventional closed current loop circuit, where all the current in the external circuit (through the losses and the loads) is returned by a "ground return line" back through the source dipole that is freely extracting the EM energy from the vacuum and radiating it. This "spent" current must be forcibly rammed back up through the source dipole itself, scattering the charges and destroying the dipole. We must then input additional energy to the shaft of the generator, to rotate it and restore that dipole.
  29. For a good description of the modern vacuum, see I. J. R. Aitchison, "Nothing's plenty: The vacuum in modern quantum field theory," Contemporary Physics, 26(4), 1985, p. 333-391.
  30. E.g., see R. Podolny, Something Called Nothing: Physical Vacuum: What Is It?, Mir Publishers, Moscow, 1986, p. 181. In mass units, the energy density of the virtual particle flux of vacuum is on the order of 1080 grams per cubic centimeter.
  31. Willis E. Lamb Jr. and Robert C. Retherford, "Fine structure of the hydrogen atom by a microwave method," Physical Review, 72(3), Aug. 1, 1947, p. 241-243. Lamb received the 1955 Nobel Prize in physics jointly with Polykarp Kush for experiments measuring the small displacement later called the "Lamb shift" of 0+ne of the energy levels in atomic hydrogen.
  32. E.g., see W. T. Grandy Jr., "The Explicit Nonlinearity of Quantum Electrodynamics." in The Electron: New Theory and Experiment, David Hestenes and Antonio Weingartshofer, Eds., Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston, 1991, p. 149-164. Quoting, p. 150: ." . .the energy density associated with the Lamb shift would produce a Poynting vector about three times the total power output of the sun, and a gravitational field disrupting the entire solar system!" We comment that the reaction is ongoing in a maelstrom of additional such violent interactions, and so — even though each of these fierce interactions might be energetic enough to disrupt the entire solar system — the net summation is a very tame little thing confined to shifting that single little electron, while still participating in the fluctuations of the vacuum energy elsewhere. The summation of infinite things to leave a manageable finite thing, is well known and used in particle physics, where it is often referred to as renormalization.
  33. H. B. G. Casimir, "On the attraction between two perfectly conducting plates," presented at a meeting of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences on 29 May, 1948. Published in the same year in Proceeding Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen, Amsterdam, Vol. 51(7), 1948, p. 793-796.
  34. A very accurate modern measurement of the Casimir effect is given by S. K. Lamoreaux, "Demonstration of the Casimir Force in the 0.6 to 6mm range," Physical Review Letters, 78(1), Jan. 6, 1997, p. 5-8.
  35. Daniel C. Cole and Harold E. Puthoff, "Extracting Energy and Heat from the Vacuum," Physical Review E, 48(2), Aug. 1993, p. 1562-1565.
  36. Myron W. Evans, private correspondence.
  37. Nikola Tesla, "The True Wireless," Electrical Experimenter, May 1919. Heaviside was speaking of Hertzian (transverse) EM waves in the vacuum. Indeed, with Whittaker's bidirectional longitudinal EM wave decomposition of the scalar potential, and by quantum field theory's finding that the time-polarized photon and longitudinal photon, when combined, are observed as the instantaneous scalar potential, one can make a very good case that the EM waves in space are longitudinal EM waves anyway. This is particularly interesting since nearly a dozen nations have already secretly weaponized longitudinal EM wave technology.
  38. Particularly see M. W. Evans, "O(3) Electrodynamics," in Modern Nonlinear Optics, Second Edition, 3 vols., Edited by M.W. Evans, Wylie, New York, 2001, Part 2, p. 79-267. Evans also has more than 600 other papers in the scientific literature.
  39. M. W. Evans, "The Link Between the Sachs and O(3) Theories of Electrodynamics," in M. W. Evans (Ed.), Modern Nonlinear Optics, Second Edition, , 3 vols. Wiley, 2001; vol. 2, p. 469-494; M.W. Evans et al., "Derivation of O(3) Electrodynamics from the Irreducible Representations of the Einstein Group," Foundations of Physics Letters, 2002 (in press).
  40. E.g., M. W. Evans et al., "Explanation of the Motionless Electromagnetic Generator with O(3) Electrodynamics," Foundations of Physics Letters, 14(1), Feb. 2001, p. 87-94; — "Explanation of the Motionless Electromagnetic Generator by Sachs's Theory of Electrodynamics," Foundations of Physics Letters, 14(4), Aug. 2001, p. 387-393.
  41. M. W. Evans et al., "Anti-Gravity Effects in the Sachs Theory of Electrodynamics," Foundations of Physics Letters, 2002 (in press).
  42. Floyd Sweet and T. E. Bearden, "Utilizing Scalar Electromagnetics to Tap Vacuum Energy," Proceedings of the 26th Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference (IECEC '91), Boston, Massachusetts, 1991, p. 370-375. Sweet's device produced 500 watts for a 33 microwatt input. A highly successful anti-gravity experiment was also performed, and is reported in the paper. Unfortunately Sweet later died and never fully revealed the activation secret by which barium ferrite magnetic materials could be in strong self-oscillation at 60 Hertz. Weak self-oscillation of such permanent magnetic materials at higher frequency is known, of course. E.g., see V. S. L'vov, Wave Turbulence Under Parametric Excitation: Applications to Magnets, Springer Series in Nonlinear Dynamics, Springer-Verlag, New York, 1994.

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